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Columbia teaching John Bull his new lesson inscribed S. Kennedy, del. Wm Charles, Sculp.
Satirical print of about 1813, commenting on Anglo-American and Franco-American relations

Historical Background

As America tried to operate within a policy of neutrality, its naval and merchant interests faced many maritime challenges.  The age-old adversaries France and England continued to fight each other and both turned on America, blockading international trade. Merchants on the Atlantic coast of the United States found it difficult to maintain their businesses, and in England manufacturers of all kinds protested the restrictions that crippled their overseas markets.  The potters of Staffordshire were among the many who suffered until war with France was won and peace was established with America.

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